Beresford’s Lost Villages


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List of technical terms

Berewick             A term used in the Domesday Book to indicate land that was attached to the Manor but was not in the same location – it was outlying from the place it was controlled from.

Croft      A back garden area to the toft where the villager could grow crops and keep animals.

Crop marks         Archaeological and natural geological features which can be seen from the air due to differential crop growth.

Earthworks         Upstanding archaeological features – often termed ‘humps and bumps’.

Hollow way        A route way that has been worn down over the years to produce a hollow route through the surrounding area. These are often the main communication routes through the settlement and out into the surrounding field system.

Hundred               An administration district within a shire.

Longhouse          A typical type of medieval peasant house. There is great regional variety but they are usually long and rectangular with an entrance way in the centre of one or both of the long sides.

Lynchets              A type of field system that was formed on steep ground. Lynchets were flat platforms to allow crops to be grown, and often form ‘flights’ up a hill side.

Manor                  A term used in the Domesday Book and later to signify a territorial and legal landholding.

Moated Site        Often, but not always, rectangular in shape, an area surrounded by a moat that could hold a house, but other uses included orchards, gardens and industrial sites.

Outlier                  Used in the context of the Domesday Book to mean the same as berewick.

Ridge and Furrow             The remnants of medieval ploughed fields. The corrugated pattern was formed as the fields were ploughed using a particular method. In some areas these still remain as upstanding earthworks, in other areas they can still be seen as crop marks in ploughed fields.

Toft       The area surrounding a medieval house. These can vary in size and nature across the country.

Villeins  Peasant farmers who were tenants and were tied to the Lord of the manor.

Wapentake         This is the same as a hundred but is used in areas which came under Anglo-Scandinavian control in the ninth and tenth centuries.


CUCAP                 Cambridge University Collection of Aerial Photography

DMH                     Deserted Medieval Hamlet

DMV                     Deserted Medieval Village

DMVRG                Deserted Medieval Village Research Group

HER                       Historic Environment Record

MSRG                   Medieval Settlement Research Group

MVRG                   Medieval Village Research Group

NMP                     Nation Mapping Programme

NMR                     National Monuments Records

OS                         Ordnance Survey

RAF                       Royal Air Force

RCHME                Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England

VCH                      Victoria County History

County records codes

The following codes are used to indicate the source of county-based records primarily the Domesday Book, and local Historic Environment Records.

BNES     Bath and North East Somerset

BEDS      Bedfordshire

BERK      Berkshire

BIRM     Birmingham

BRIC      Bristol City

BUCK     Buckinghamshire

CAMB    Cambridgeshire

CANT     Canterbury

CHES      Cheshire

CHIC      Chichester

CYOK     City of York

COLC     Colchester

CORN    Cornwall

COVY     Coventry

CUMB   Cumberland

DERB     Derbyshire

DEVN     Devonshire

DORT     Dorset

DUDY    Dudley

DURH    Durham

ESUX      East Sussex

ESSX       Essex

EXET      Exeter

EXMR    Exmoor

GLOC     Gloucester City

GLOS     Gloucestershire

GLOD     Greater London

GMAN   Greater Manchester

HAMP    Hampshire

IWGT     Isle of Wight

HERE     Herefordshire

HERT     Hertfordshire

HUMB   Humber Archaeology Partnership

HUNT    Huntingdonshire

KENT     Kent

LKDT      Lake District

LANC     Lancashire

LECY      Leicester City

LEIC       Leicestershire

LINC      Lincolnshire

MERS     Merseyside

MKYN    Milton Keynes

MIDX     Middlesex

NFOK     Norfolk

NHAM   Northamptonshire

NELN     North East Lincolnshire

NLIN      North Lincolnshire

NYMR    North York Moors

NHBD    Northumberland

NOTC    Nottingham

NOTS     Nottinghamshire

OFDC     Oxford

OXFD     Oxfordshire

PETB      Peterborough

PLYM     Plymouth

PORC     Portsmouth City

RUTD     Rutland

SANW    Sandwell

SHRO     Shropshire

SOLH     Solihull

SOMT    Somerset

SGLO     South Gloucestershire

SOHP     Southampton

SOED     Southend

SYOK      South Yorkshire

STAF      Staffordshire

SOKT      Stoke-on-Trent

SUFF      Suffolk

SURY     Surrey

SUSX      Sussex

TEES      Tees Archaeology

TORB     Torbay

TAWR    Tyne and Wear

WARW  Warwickshire

WEBK    West Berkshire

WMOD  Westmorland

WILT      Wiltshire

WINC    Winchester

WOLV    Wolverhampton

WORS    Worcestershire

WSUX    West Sussex

YOER     Yorkshire, East Riding

YONR    Yorkshire, North Riding

YOWR   Yorkshire, West Riding

YORK     Yorkshire

YODL     Yorkshire Dales